Agreement Governing The Activities Of States On The Moon And Other Celestial Bodies

By 2021-04-08Okategoriserade

Article 8 of the 1979 lunar agreement states that “1. States Parties may conduct their research and use of the Moon anywhere on or below its surface, subject to the provisions of this Agreement. 2. To this end, States Parties may(a) place their space objects on the Moon and deposit them from the Moon; b) place their personnel, spacecraft, equipment, facilities, stations and installations anywhere on or below the surface of the Moon. Personnel, space vehicles, equipment, facilities and facilities can move freely above or below the surface of the Moon.” 1. The provisions of this agreement on the Moon also apply to other celestial bodies in the solar system, with the exception of Earth, provided that specific legal standards come into force for one of these celestial bodies. 2. The Moon is not subject to any national appropriation by a right to sovereignty, by use or occupation, or by any other means. The Reagan administration`s succession failed because of any future ratification of the lunar treaty.

The government has indicated that it is opposed to the ratification of the lunar treaty, which has virtually killed the lunar treaty for the United States. Yet the United States has never taken an official position on the validity of the lunar treaty and, for the most part, it has been put on a political basis.4 Conversely, the United States has not adopted an official position on the lunar treaty, but it has officially recognized in diplomatic circles the binding nature of the other four space laws, not to mention the lunar treaty. Although this does not have the strength to openly renounce the lunar treaty, the question remains whether it contributes to pushing back the shadow of international customary law and its predictable creep to link non-parties to the lunar treaty. 1. During the exploration and use of the Moon, States Parties take steps to prevent the existing balance of their environment from being altered, whether by the introduction of adverse changes in the Moon, by its harmful contamination by the introduction of hazardous materials or by other means. States Parties are also taking steps to avoid adverse effects on the Earth`s environment through the introduction of extraterrestrial substances or other means. However, after it came into force in 1984, after obtaining a sufficient number of ratifications, it has still not been ratified by a larger space power like the United States of America and has not been signed by the majority of states/nations. It is therefore not directly relevant to current space activities. “7) The main objectives of the international settlement to be put in place are: a) the orderly and safe development of the Moon`s natural resources; b) the rational management of these funds; (c) expanding the possibilities for the use of these resources; (d) an equitable distribution of the benefits of these resources by all States Parties, paying particular attention to the interests and needs of developing countries, as well as to the efforts of countries that have contributed directly or indirectly to the study of the Moon. 8. All activities relating to the Moon`s natural resources are carried out in a manner consistent with the purposes of paragraph 7 of this article and with the provisions of Article 6, paragraph 2, of this agreement.” Article 10 of the 1979 Lunar Agreement was inspired by Article V of the 1967 Space Treaty and states that “States Parties provide protection to persons in distress on the Moon in their stations, facilities, vehicles and other facilities.” The treaty was concluded in 1979 and came into force in 1984 for the ratifying parties, after fulfilling the requirement that five states were ratified.


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